The United States had many reasons that compelled them to enter the Philippines; the compulsion to spread American culture, the desire to expand and develop commercial relations, the goal of gaining access to raw materials and markets, and the strategy of increasing national security. When the US acquired the Philippines, Filipino insurgents resisted the transfer of authority and wanted independence. Under the leadership of Emilio Aguinaldo, a guerrilla war began, and though the United States was not prepared, they captured Aguinaldo, gained his allegiance, and won the support of many Filipinos. In 1901, the US set up a colonial government under William Taft and implemented many reforms that were very successful, but also oppressive. Later in 1935, the Philippines became a commonwealth, and Manuel Quezon was elected as president. During 1941 in World War I, Japan invaded the Philippines and remained there until 1944 when Douglas MacArthur defeated the Japanese. This left the Philippines a mess; the economy was hurt badly and Manila, the capital, was destroyed. The above picture is of President Truman signing the Treaty of Manila.